published by:
JOURNAL OF NEUROTRAUMA 29:168–185 (January 1, 2012)
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/neu.2011.1895
posted on: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/neu.2011.1895

Key words: hyperbaric oxygen therapy; post-concussion syndrome; post-traumatic stress disorder; single photon emission computed tomography; traumatic brain injury

Introduction

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are diagnoses of particular concern in the United States because of the volume of affected servicemen and women from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. A Rand report (Tanielian and Jaycox, 2008) estimates that 300,000 (18.3%) of 1.64 million military service members who have deployed to these war zones have PTSD or major depression, and 320,000 (19.5%) have experienced a TBI. Overall, approximately 546,000 have one of the three diagnoses, and 82,000 have symptoms of all three (symptoms of TBI refer to the post-concussion syndrome [PCS]). The frequency of the combined diagnoses in veterans of mild TBI and PTSD has recently been estimated to be between 5 and 7% (Carlson, 2010). With a probable diagnosis of mild TBI the  combined diagnosis incidence rises to 33–39% (Carlson, 2010). A Walter Reed Army Institute of Research post-deployment survey of 4618 soldiers reported that 15.2% of the injured had a history of loss of consciousness or altered mental status (Hoge et al., 2008). That study also found that 43.9% of those with a history of loss of consciousness and …more

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